The birth rate in Finland has declined steadily throughout the 2010s and was at its lowest ever level in 2018. At the same time, Finland is one of the first welfare states in the world where a significant proportion of the population is aged. Finland’s demographic situation is unprecedented on an international scale.
In spring 2020, the Prime Minister’s Office launched a project that sought to examine the causes of the current demographic situation in Finland and made policy recommendations to ensure sustainable demographic development.
The project was exploring the following aspects of the situation:
- The effects of economic, social and regional inequality on birth rates
- The effects of demographic development and changes in the dependency ratio on public finances, the supply of labour and the financing of services needed to maintain the welfare state
- The effects of improving the family-friendliness of working life and the child-friendliness of society on birth rates
- Changes in individuals’ desires, needs and expectations in the 2000s and their effects on birth rates
- Ensuring safe old age and ageing as a social issue.
The principal investigator in the project was Research Professor Anna Rotkirch.